Use The Correct Form Of The Words In Brackets Pdf

     

The sentence above contains a grammatical problem in regards khổng lồ word form. In particular, the writer uses the noun importance when the adjective important should have been used. We can still understand what this sentence means, but because an incorrect suffix is used, the sentence is ungrammatical. This handout will go through some common suffixes & strategies khổng lồ help you improve your knowledge of word forms.

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Background

In English, there are many words that have the same root, but can be changed to lớn be a verb, noun, adjective, or adverb by adding a suffix. For instance, the root beaut can be used to form a noun beauty, a verb beautify, an adjective beautiful, & an adverb beautifully. To use a word correctly in a sentence, it is important to lớn know two things: not only which part of speech lớn choose (e.g. Noun or verb), but also which suffix creates this part of speech (e.g. -ness or -tion to size a specific noun). This two-stage process can be quite challenging. The table below shows the most common suffixes that are used to lớn create four different parts of speech:

Noun

Verb

Adjective

Adverb

Function:

Names a person, place, or thing.

Function:

Expresses an action, doing something.

Function:

Describes or modifies a noun.

Function:

Modifies a verb, adjective, or other adverb.

Common Suffixes:

-tion: education, information

-ity: community, activity

-ty: society, beauty

-er: teacher, reader

-or: behavior, professor

-ar: seminar, singular

-r: computer

-ance: importance

-ness: business

-ism: criticism

-ment: development, treatment

-ent: student, president

-ant: assistant

-ship: relationship

-age: percentage

-ery: discovery

Common Suffixes:

-ize: realize, emphasize

-en: flatten, broaden

-ate: differentiate, initiate

-fy: satisfy, liquefy

-ify: exemplify, beautify

Common Suffixes:

-al: general, social

-ent: independent, confident

-ant: important, dominant

-ive: positive, active

-ous: courteous

-ious: various, obvious

-ate: accurate, private

-ful: useful, beautiful

-less: endless, helpless

Common Suffixes:

-ly is the only common suffix for adverbs:

probably

certainly

exactly

importantly

finally

simply

clearly

Note:

Some adverbs bởi vì not kết thúc in -ly (e.g. well, soon, always, here, and hard), while some adjectives can have the ending -ly (early, daily, oily, lonely, and friendly).

Table adapted from Folse, K. S. (2009). Keys lớn teaching grammar to English language learners: A practical handbook. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Strategies for Working on Word form Issues

- to lớn identify which part of speech should be used in a particular phrase, you could ask yourself whether you need a word that would name an object (noun), express an kích hoạt (verb), describe an object (adjective), or modify an action or mô tả tìm kiếm (adverb).

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- Use the table above to identify which part of speech is created with the suffix you used.

- check words you are unsure about in dictionaries (e.g. Http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/us/). Before providing a word definition, dictionaries usually cảnh báo to which part of speech a given word belongs.

- COCA Word & Phrase (https://www.wordandphrase.info/) can be checked lớn see how a particular word is used in sentences lớn make sure you have selected the right form.

- Sometimes you know which part of speech khổng lồ use, but you are not sure which suffix to lớn use (e.g. Is it difficultness or difficulty?). Since word suffixes are unpredictable, words can be checked in dictionaries, corpora, or just Googled.

- It is also a good idea lớn jot down words with the common endings in a notebook while you read for school, work, or pleasure. Then you can return to your notes và look up which part of speech these words are.

Practice

Underline correct word forms:

Over the semester, I worked on (purposefully / purpose) crafting questions to lớn elicit, probe, and (connective / connect) students" ideas during a (discuss / discussion). These ideas were presented in our third (classify / class) meeting & reinforced in our readings from Chapin"s Classroom Discussions (2003). We talked (explicitly / explicit) about asking questions khổng lồ elicit students" (initial / initially) thoughts & solutions; asking questions khổng lồ probe students" answers when the (teacher / teach) does not understand what the (studious / student) is saying, when he or she wants lớn (verify / verification) that right answers are supported by (correct / correctly) understanding, và when he or she wants lớn understand the thinking behind an incorrect answer; & supporting students khổng lồ make (connects / connections) between solutions, methods, models, or mathematical concepts.

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The (discussions / discusses) that transpired in my math lesson (reflect / reflective) my ability to lớn skillfully ask (purposeful / purpose) questions when leading a whole-class discussion. In Discussion A, I began by asking students to tell me something they noticed about the Penrose tiling (00:40). By asking a (broadly / broad) question all students could answer, I was able to lớn elicit (initial / initiative) thoughts from many of my students & attend to the learning of all students. Seven students were (ability / able) khổng lồ contribute their ideas about this (designer / design) & many others had their hands raised. I also used thumbs up or thumbs down và nod your head if… questions khổng lồ elicit answers from the entire class at once (07:48). This allowed me khổng lồ get a (sense / sensible) of each student’s thinking, even if he or she was uncomfortable participating in the whole-group discussion.